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Weimar: carreira musical e política de corte
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Breaking News:

21.03.09 21:21

Eisenach, 21. März 1685 nascia o Mestre da Música, Johann Sebastian Bach

 

Modestamente...


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Weimar: carreira musical e política de corte

O prestígio crescente de João Sebastião pode ser avaliado por uma série de eventos ocorridos nos anos de 1713 e 1714. Convidado a avaliar o projeto de construção de um novo e espetacular órgão na Igreja de Nossa Senhora em Halle (então território prussiano), merece todas as deferências possíveis, como a hospedagem no melhor hotel e reembolso de todas as despesas (inclusive 18 groschen em cerveja ou 32 canecas) e termina sendo convidado a ocupar o posto de organista, sem sequer apresentar sua candidatura.

 

Como resposta, a corte de Weimar, em março de 1714, o nomeia Mestre de Concertos, com a atribuição de compor uma cantata por mês e comandar a orquestra da corte. Tudo isso, antes dos 30 anos de idade.

 

Havia, porém, o outro lado da moeda. A corte ducal registrava devidamente toda essa agitação profissional e não mudava a ordem de precedência entre seus funcionários musicais. Bach ganhava mais que os dois Drese, pai e filho, mas seguia em posição subalterna no organograma musical da corte. Além disso, quando o Mestre de Capela João Samuel Drese falece, sua substituição passa a ter outro planejamento: Teleman seria convidado para ser o Mestre de Capela Geral de todas as cidades governadas pelos Duques de Saxe-Weimar.

 

Ou seja, João Sebastião podia ser um talento reconhecido, mas questões como fidelidade ao posto (como demonstrara a família Drese em Weimar) e renome nacional (caso de Teleman) também tinham seu peso.

 

Não foi a única lição ambígua que João Sebastião aprendeu em Weimar. Pertence também ao período seu confronto com o organista francês Louis Marchand, organizado em Dresden em 1717.

 

O convite da corte de Dresden e a fuga de Marchand, que evitou vergonhosamente a competição com Bach, podem ter feito muito por sua fama e pela sua confiança em sua posição como instrumentista, mas foram acompanhadas por mensagens igualmente importantes.

 

Em Dresden, por exemplo, ele certamente ficou a par da escala modesta em que trabalhava. Heinichen, vice mestre de capela da Corte Eleitoral, ganhava 1200 táleres por ano, mais de três vezes seu salário em Weimar ou Cothen. Antonio Lotti e sua esposa cantora recebiam mais de 10 mil táleres pela composição e performance de óperas italianas.

 

Sejam lá quais foram as razões pelas quais Bach jamais compôs música para ópera, essa decisão foi tomada com pleno conhecimento de suas conseqüências financeiras e profissionais. Não escrever ópera era ficar fora do circuito fashion da música nas cortes alemães e fora também do big money.

 

A decisão de permanecer em Weimar e recusar o convite para Halle, além de questões financeiras, foi, assim, uma decisão de aprofundar a carreira como compositor de todo tipo de música e superar a imagem de organista, por mais bem sucedido que tenha sido esse caminho profissional.

 

São anos de produção de obras primas em todos os campos. As cantatas BWV 182, 12, 21, 63, 31, 161 e 61 começam a explorar o gênero da moderna cantata alemã, criada por volta de 1700, mesclando todos os gêneros copiados do madrigal italiano: corais, coros, recitativos, árias, peças orquestrais, dando ao compositor amplas oportunidades de explorar as relações entre poesia e música.

 

Weimar também vê o nascimento das grandes obras para o órgão e teclado: BWV 538, 540, 541, 524, as Suítes Inglesas, a Fantasia Cromática e o início do Cravo Bem Temperado. E a lista conhecida pode ser ínfima: com base na comparação entre o papel fornecido pela corte a João Sebastião e o material conhecido, a perda das composições do período pode chegar a 50%!

 

Esse período na vida artística de João Sebastião termina marcado pelo peso das políticas de corte para a música. Os planos para atrair Teleman como super mestre de capela envolviam a transferência de Bach para a corte de Cothen, cujo príncipe passou a ser cunhado do Duque Ernst August. Ou seja, a posição de Mestre de Capela seria negada a Bach em Weimar, mas ele seria promovido para a corte de Coethen, com salário maior e onde não seria subordinado a Teleman.

 

Os detalhes do arranjo não são conhecidos, mas é certo que Bach não gostou. Suas demandas junto ao Duque de Weimar chegaram ao ponto de uma discussão pública com altos funcionários. A insistência em uma pronta demissão levou, afinal, ao célebre período na prisão. Um sinal claro de que João Sebastião nem se submetia às modas musicais da época, nem tampouco se calava diante dos meandros da política de corte.