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"Em busca da fortuna em outro lugar"
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Breaking News:

21.03.09 21:21

Eisenach, 21. März 1685 nascia o Mestre da Música, Johann Sebastian Bach

 

Modestamente...


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"Em busca da fortuna em outro lugar"

Os primeiros anos da carreira profissional de João Sebastião revelam uma incomum mudança de posições, sempre em direção ascendente e claramente motivada por seu prestígio público. O relativamente elevado salário pago pela cidade de Arnstadt não segurou o jovem organista por muito tempo e quando falece o organista da Igreja de São Blásio, em Mülhausen, João Sebastião foi certamente convidado a assumir o posto e aprovado, como único candidato, em 24 de maio de 1707.

 

Mülhausen não lhe ofereceu um posto qualquer. Era a segunda maior cidade da Turíngia, uma cidade livre imperial, livre da sujeição a soberanos feudais, com muitos mais recursos. O posto de organista da cidade exigia também a composição de música vocal.

 

É bem provável, por sinal, que a cantata BWV 4, “Cristo jaz nos braços da morte”, tenho sido composta como prova de teste. O breve período em Mülhausen – pouco mais de um ano – é marcado, contudo, por notáveis eventos profissionais.

 

Para começar, João Sebastião conseguiu impor o mesmo salário de Arnstadt, acrescido de várias franquias. Recebia adicionais pelo trabalho em outras igrejas da cidade e o fato de não dispor de uma residência funcional era amplamente compensado pelas atividades musicais em uma cidade mais populosa. João Sebastião aceita, inclusive, dois alunos.

 

O período em Mülhausen também produz o primeiro registro formal da atividade de João Sebastião como ‘consultor’ para a construção e reforma de órgãos. Com poucos meses de atividade consegue da cidade a reforma do órgão de São Blásio, um projeto caro – 230 táleres – e que estenderia por muitos meses.

 

Por fim, chamado a compor obras vocais, terá a única cantata impressa de sua vida - BWV 71, “Deus é meu Rei”. Composta para a inauguração do Conselho Municipal, “Deus é meu Rei” foi impressa muito antes que Haendel e Teleman tivessem a mesma chance. Não deixa de ser irônico, portanto, que nenhuma outra de suas obras para voz será impressa em vida.

 

O impacto da BWV 71 pode ser também medido pelo fato de que o Conselho de Mülhausen o convidaria para compor peças para a mesma ocasião em 1709 e 1710, quando já estava em Weimar. Também pode ser atribuída a esse período a cantata 131, “Das profundezas”, outra obra prima.

 

O prestígio crescente de João Sebastião pode ser facilmente avaliado pelo processo de saída de Mülhausen. Em meados de 1708 é convidado para reinaugurar o órgão de Weimar, em uma audiência perante o Duque Guilherme Ernesto. Terminado o evento, é imediatamente convidado pelo Duque para ser Músico de Câmera e Organista da Corte, pelo salário de 150 florins.

 

Bach aceita imediatamente e comunica ao Conselho de Mülhausen que, mesmo atônito, lhe concede a demissão.

 

O rompimento de contrato não deixou mágoas. Bach indica seu sucessor, o primo Ernst Bach, compromete-se a completar a reforma do órgão da cidade e, em 1735, a cidade contratará, para o mesmo posto, seu filho Johann Bernhard Bach. Em visita à cidade nessa época, João Sebastião testou o órgão “sem cobrar nada”.

 

O período em Mülhausen é muito curto para que lhe possa ser atribuído um impacto maior sobre a obra do Mestre. Compôs ali algumas obras primas importantes, mas ainda dentro de estilo corrente. Ainda assim, quase por acaso, facultou a redação de um dos poucos documentos pessoais pelo seu punho, o memorial em que pede demissão.

 

Nele aparece a expressão que se tornará clássica – “uma bem regulada música de Igreja” – informa que a cidade está longe desse ideal e a admite que seguirá para Weimar por buscar melhores meios de sustento.

 

Nesses anos, aos vinte e poucos, João Sebastião é um músico de sucesso, recém casado, com ambições bem concretas e talvez surpreso com o extemporâneo convite do Duque de Weimar.