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Jovem em Arnstadt
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Breaking News:

21.03.09 21:21

Eisenach, 21. März 1685 nascia o Mestre da Música, Johann Sebastian Bach

 

Modestamente...


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Jovem em Arnstadt

O primeiro emprego formal de João Sebastião é como organista da cidade de Arnstadt. Era a cidade mais antiga da Turíngia e sua carta de direitos e franquias datava de 1266. No século XVIII, era a capital de um Principado, governado pelos Condes de Schwarzburg, e contava com pouco menos de 4 mil habitantes. Bach aceitou formalmente o posto em 9 de agosto de 1703, com responsabilidade pelo órgão da “Igreja Nova”.

 

Para um músico de apenas 18 anos, o posto era excepcional. Seu salário de 50 florins, somados a outros benefícios, era três vezes maior que o valor recebido como funcionário eventual da corte de Weimar. Ele tinha livre acesso ao instrumento e uma escala de trabalho pouco pesada, quando comparada à dos demais organistas da cidade. Além disso, o Superintendente das igrejas, Johann Gottfried Olearius, era um eminente pastor e teólogo, conhecido da família Bach e certamente uma fonte de instrução literária e religiosa para João Sebastião.

 

As funções contratuais de João Sebastião incluíam o acompanhamento dos corais cantados pela congregação, a execução de prelúdios corais, prelúdios e poslúdios e peças livres nas Vésperas. Em pouco tempo, contudo, ficaria claro que o Consistório exigia muito do organista e que o organista era um indivíduo independente demais.

 

Tome-se o célebre evento do fagotista Geyersbach. João Sebastião não se entendia com os coristas e instrumentistas, quase todos mais velhos do que ele. Foi fácil passar dos atritos de ensaios à briga de rua. Ao longo da polêmica, foram ouvidas as críticas ao organista que fazia “variações imprevistas” e não oferecia “música de concerto”. João Sebastião respondeu que o faria se a cidade contratasse um diretor musical que impusesse disciplina ao coro e aos músicos.

 

Christoph Wolff, na verdade, suspeita que João Sebastião já fazia um jogo duplo, trabalhando como músico no castelo dos condes e negligenciando suas funções como organista da cidade por falta das condições que ele julgava necessárias.

 

É a esse ponto da biografia que pertence o episódio da “moça estranha no coro”.

 

O biógrafo, sempre inteligente, lembra, contudo, que as mulheres não eram tão proibidas assim de participar de atividades musicais nas igrejas. A figura das adjudanten oferecia essas oportunidades. Além disso, os estudantes do liceu de Arnstadt tinham uma longa história de turbulência e confusões. Era parte da história da cidade.

 

No somatório desses atritos, João Sebastião decide novamente sair da Turíngia para empregar-se na cidade imperial de Mülhausen e também a casar-se com a prima, Maria Barbara, em 17 de outubro de 1707, aos 22 anos.

 

A liberdade artística, a proximidade da corte dos Condes de Schwarzburg, o amplo público - que podia chegar a mil e quinhentas pessoas na Igreja Nova, abriram um novo período criativo para João Sebastião.

 

Datam desses anos obras autônomas como os prelúdios BWV 566, BWV 535 e BWV 921, obras relacionadas a temas de Reinken, como a BWV 965 (cuja fuga é excepcional), alguns primeiros prelúdios do Orgelbuchlei, como “Ich ruf zu dir” e certamente a Passacaglia e Fuga, BWV 582.

 

O grande evento artístico-biográfico do período em Arnstadt foi, contudo, a viagem a Lubeck, para ouvir Buxtehude.

 

Pelo fato em si – dez dias de caminhada, cobrindo 250 milhas -, ela traz a marca da juventude aventureira de João Sebastião; pelo testemunho de admiração, outro traço notável de sua vida: o interesse pela obra alheia e a rápida absorção de modelos e idéias. A experiência em Lubeck, que se estendeu por quatro meses, em vez das quatro semanas prometidas ao Consistório de Arnstadt mostrou-se fundamental não apenas para a obra organística, onde o impacto é evidente, mas também para a obra vocal, com que certamente teve contato em seus meses em Lubeck.

 

Trata-se de mera especulação se João Sebastião compôs cantatas ainda em Arnstadt. É certo, porém, que ao chegar a Mülhausen, depois da experiência em Lubeck, ele criaria evidentes obras primas: a BWV 4, “Cristo jaz nos braços da Morte” e a BWV 106, “O tempo de Deus é o melhor dos Tempos”.