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Excelência escolar
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Breaking News:

21.03.09 21:21

Eisenach, 21. März 1685 nascia o Mestre da Música, Johann Sebastian Bach

 

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Excelência escolar

A melhor prova de que a orfandade foi ao menos compensada pelo apoio familiar e pela casa de seu irmão é o desempenho escolar nos anos em Ohrdruf. Os dois irmãos, Jacob e João Sebastião, foram matriculados do Liceu Gleichense, escola fundada em 1560 por Jorge II, conde de Gleichen. João Sebastião terminou a tertia em 1697 em primeiro lugar na turma, mesmo sendo o mais jovem, com 12 anos de idade. Na classe seguinte, a secunda, foi o segundo colocado e chegou à prima com apenas 14 anos, quatro anos abaixo da média normal ao tempo.

 

Ele completou sua educação fundamental em oito anos, uma realização desconhecida em sua família – todos os seus irmãos deixaram a escola na tertia, aos 14 anos. Ao mesmo tempo, ganhava dinheiro como membro do coro escolar, que recebia estipêndios para cantar pelas ruas da cidade três vezes por ano. Data dessa época também seu contato cotidiano com o patrimônio de melodias e poemas dos hinos luteranos.

 

No Liceu, estudava-se latim e grego, teologia baseada na obra de Leonard Hutter e história romana, lida em Cornélio Nepos, Cícero e Curtius Rufus. Comédias de Terêncio e as obras históricas de Johannes Buno faziam parte do currículo e, ao longo de todos os anos, matemática.

 

João Sebastião não completa a prima em Ohrdruf. Junto com seu colega Jorge Erdmann seguem para a Escola de São Miguel em Luneburg, no ano  de 1700, certamente estimulado pelo fim do pagamento aos coristas do Liceu. Uma série de conexões entre a família Bach e os responsáveis pelo Liceu permitiu o acesso à escola de Luneburg.

 

Foi uma decisão pessoal que levou o primeiro membro da família Bach a sair da Turíngia e um dos primeiros a completar a escolaridade necessária para o acesso ao ensino superior.

 

Trata-se de um sinal de que João Sebastião começava a buscar exemplos fora de seu círculo familiar, onde prevaleciam músicos municipais, cuja formação profissional seguia o modelo medieval do aprendizado junto a um mestre de prestígio.

 

Não há dúvida – e as biografias escritas sob a orientação de seus filhos – de que João Sebastião teve como primeiro professor formal o irmão João Cristóvão, de acordo com as técnicas do tempo – o ensino pelo exemplo e pela cópia de composições dos grandes mestres. A experiência na escola de São Miguel em Luneburg, contudo, abriria outros horizontes para o rapaz de 15 anos.

 

A imersão musical provida por seu meio social e familiar foi complementada por uma formação acadêmica complexa, fruto das reformas educacionais promovidas pelo protestantismo. Começou em Luneburg a biografia do músico excepcional que também conhece, línguas, história sacra e profana, matemática, lógica, etc. Um homem que toca todos os instrumentos e conhece sua mecânica.

 

Por fim, ele certamente começou a compor sob João Cristóvão, mas há pouquíssimos registros de suas primeiras obras. Primeiro, porque compositores razoáveis se livravam desse material incipiente na idade madura. C.P.E Bach registra um desses episódios em que se descarta de suas obras primeiras por meio da crítica das chamas. Segundo, vazados na tablatura alemã, não foram preservados em sua maioria.

 

Ainda assim, Christoph Wolff entende que pelo menos três exemplos podem ser destacados: os chamados Corais Neumeister em que uma composição de Pachelbel é terminada por "outro" compositor.

 

Seriam os primeiros registros da atividade de João Sebastião: uma espécie comentário a Pachelbel. As chamadas Fughettas podem ser até anteriores, mas não trazem a marca da originalidade composicional. Em Jesus minha Alegria (BWV 1105) Como Jesus Cristo na Noite (BWV 1108) e Jesus amado do coração (BWV 1093) Bach começa a “ir além de seu escopo” justamente no território – o coral protestante – em que permanecerá até o fim.